Peri-implant mucositis, defined as an inflammatory lesion in the surrounding peri-implant tissues without loss of supporting bone, are important disease entities as a result of their high prevalence and the lack of a standard mode of therapy. Although the current epidemiological data are limited, peri-implant mucositis affects 43% of the subjects.
Numerous approaches have been used for implant surface decontamination, including mechanical, chemical and laser treatments. Using conventional mechanical means, eradication of pathogens on implant surfaces with threads and often with rough surface structures is difficult. Treatment models, such as debridement, effectively used to treat teeth with periodontitis, cannot be used in the same way on rough threaded implant surfaces. The implant rough surface structure also provides the bacteria with ''protected areas'', inaccessible to conventional mechanical removal.
A treatment protocol that may offer an advantage over traditional mechanical treatment includes the use of laser therapy. Data have shown that treatments with Er:YAG lasers have a bactericidal effect. Er:YAG laser treatment can debride the implant surface effectively and safely. Slightly better clinical results in terms of bleeding on probing and clinical attachment level have been reported by Er:YAG laser treatment as compared with traditional non-surgical mechanical debridement with curette and chlorhexidine.
The air abrasive method for the removal of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces has also been used in the treatment of mucositis, demonstrating no relevant adverse effects. Until recently, air-polishing devices have used a slurry of water and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and pressurized air/water. A less abrasive method using an amino acid glycine has been proven to be effective in removing bacterial biofilm structures in deep periodontal pockets and safe by not causing emphysema. Moreover the use of a glycine-based powder does not seem to cause titanium implant surface changes.
The aim of the present randomized controlled clinical trial will be to assess the efficacy in improving clinical parameters of two further methods of implant surface decontamination (Er:YAG laser or air-abrasive device) after mechanical and chemical cleaning during non surgical treatment of mucositis.
From ClinicalTrials.gov, a database of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, through its National Library of Medicine. This record may not reflect the most current and accurate biomedical/scientific data available from the NLM/NIH.